More and more efforts are being promoted to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. One of the alternatives that has come to the fore and has positioned itself as a solution is the large-scale production of green hydrogen, a fuel that promises to alleviate CO2 emissions from industries that use diesel or natural gas.
Everyone knows that hydrogen is a non-toxic colorless gas, which is even the most abundant chemical element. However, it is not available as a molecule in any deposit, so it must be obtained from various sources, such as water or fossil fuels.
The well-called green hydrogen, as an ecological resource, is expected to positively transform daily dynamics, impacting lifestyles and establishing itself as a sustainable and sustainable practice, in order to curb climate change that has set off so many alarms around the world. At IC Corporation, from the beginning, the risks and opportunities involved in responding to the environmental crisis were weighed, and that is why one of the most consolidated strengths in the company is sustainability accompanied by self-sustaining strategies.
Now, taking up the hydrogen thread, many wonder how big its impact can be. In the first place, it is important to begin to conceive it as a vital point in the arduous task of decarbonizing the economy. Hydrogen from the hand of renewable energies from the sun and the wind becomes a decisive vector for the future and development of countries that know how to take advantage of it.
Green or Renewable Hydrogen allows energy to be stored chemically in a small space and for long periods of time. Large amounts of energy can be collected with hydrogen produced from the wind and the sun. In this way, green hydrogen is usually obtained by hydrolysis. It should be noted that previously producing hydrogen was very expensive and entailed carbon dioxide emissions, because electrolysis required a large amount of electricity without renewable sources. The good news is that now obtaining it through sustainable practices allows to have an ecological, synthetic fuel, and versatile uses.
Gray hydrogen made from fossil fuels is traditionally known to most people, and is commonly used by the chemical industry to make ammonia and fertilizers, and to refine petroleum. For its part, green or clean hydrogen is produced from electrical currents generated by a renewable source, without emissions, since it only leaves water vapor.
Some of its advantages are that it can be easily transported through gas pipelines and it can be exported by ships and pipelines.
The call that is made is to invest in research and technological development to minimize the production costs of this element. The idea is to promote studies that seek to improve the efficiency of renewable energies, obtain new electrodes for electrolyzers and fuel cells, better forms of hydrogen storage and its application.
In this order of ideas, an investigation published in the scientific journal ACS Energy Letter showed that the consumption of water to generate hydrogen in the electrolysis process is insignificant compared to the amount of water available. It is estimated that the annual H2V demand to satisfy all economic sectors is 2.3 gigatons (Gt), which would consume about 21 billion m3 of fresh water, corresponding to 0.00015% of the fresh water available in the planet. It is a very low figure when compared to the 251 trillion m3 that are used annually in the generation of energy using fossil fuels and 2,770 trillion m3 used in agriculture.
There is no doubt that green hydrogen is 100% sustainable although more expensive than gray. However, there are more than 250 projects in the world related to the generation and use of H2 as a source of renewable and clean energy. It is no coincidence that experts classify this resource as the most attractive energy for the future.
Another point in favor of hydrogen is that its technologies for obtaining and using it are well known and it can also be used to replace other polluting energy sources at an industrial level (for example, in combustion furnaces) and urban (for example, in vehicles of transport with combustion engines such as cars, trains, ships, airplanes, etc.). Likewise, it can directly convert its chemical energy into electricity in electrochemical devices (use in motors, lighting, etc.)
The most difficult challenge to overcome is the task of minimizing the cost of green energy to produce H2 as this does not make it competitive with respect to conventional fuels. In the same way, States and industries must invest in new forms and infrastructures of transport, security, distribution networks and charging stations, to make this resource the viable solution of the future.
Experts project that 2030 will be the year in which these problems are solved. It is no secret to anyone that achieving this goal requires the joint work of: governments capable of legislating and promoting policies that add up, researchers focused on optimizing technologies, and industries committed to the environment.
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